德  蕾  莎  修  女

早在三十多年前 (一九七九年),的諾貝爾和平獎,宣佈要頒發給一位天主教修女的時候,舉世驚奇。這位修女既不參予政治,也不管國家大事,她只是默默的奉獻自己,為窮人中的窮人服務。她獲得諾貝爾和平獎,正說明了她那種為愛而奉獻,為和平而服務的偉大情操,值得世人敬佩和讚頌。這位修女就是有「世界最偉大的乞丐」之稱的德蕾莎姆姆。

提起德蕾莎姆姆 (對年長修女的尊稱)的大名,舉世皆知。當年,她知道自己得到諾貝爾和平獎的時候說:「我本入不配,我是幫窮苦的人代領這個獎。我很高興貧窮的人,受到應有的注意。希望大家能更瞭解他們,幫助他們。」德蕾莎姆姆把全部的獎金,都用於救濟貧苦病弱者的事業中。

德蕾莎姆姆已於一九九七年九月離開人世回歸天鄉,她的遺愛則永留人間,她所創辦的為窮人服務的各項事業,則一天天的增加擴展,遍及世界。有關她的事跡,人們從報刊、廣播、電視等各種媒體的報導中,知道不少。在她才離世兩年,教會人士已開始進行替她列為聖者的手續,這是天主教會近兩干年來的空前創舉。為表達對德蕾莎姆姆一生慈愛行為的敬意,筆 者願將她的生平,昭述出來以饗讀友。

德蕾莎修女於一九一0年八月,出生在南斯拉夫阿爾巴尼亞的史科培城。父親是位商人,母親賢良淑慧,她是么女,有一個哥哥、一個姐姐。父親早逝,生活清苦。小時候,德蕾莎在當地的公立學校念書,參加了學校中的天主教學生會。這個學生會特別支持到外地去傳教。十二歲的時候,她就立下志願,將來要到外國去傳教,從事救助窮人的工作。不過,當時的德蕾莎,享受著天倫之樂,是捨不得離開她那可愛的家庭的。

德蕾莎十五歲的時候,正在中學念書,家鄉裡有耶穌會的神父們,被派到印度的孟加拉去服務。神父們寄回家鄉的書信中,報告了印度有關的一切。她看到這些書信,很受感動,決心長大以後,要到印度去工作。那時候起,德蕾莎就在快樂的家庭生活,和救世服務的奉獻生活之間,徘徊掙扎。十八歲那年,她終於選擇奉獻生活,追隨天主的聖召。辭別了疼愛她的母親,和親愛的哥哥姊姊,隻身到愛爾蘭都柏林的羅瑞多修女會做初學主。因為這修會在印度的加爾吝答教區,有傳教事業和修院。不久,她從愛爾蘭到了印度加爾各答,接受修會教育。

德蕾莎做了修女之後,被派到加爾各答的聖瑪利女子中學做地理老師。這座學校雖然座落在加爾辛答的貧民窟旁,但是學校的學生,都是富家的女孩。這所貴族學校夾在貧苦地區當中,好像沙漠中的宮殿那樣,高大的圍牆,隔離的是兩個世界。(可參閱李家同的"讓高牆倒下吧")德蕾莎修女在聖瑪利女中,教書近二十年,而且做了幾年校長,看起來她的工作是非常順利,不過在一九四六年九月十日的一次旅行中,改變了德蕾莎修女的一生,也改變了成千上萬人的一生。她那天坐火車去大吉嶺,在火車上她突然感覺到天主的召喚,要她離開平靜的教書工作,去為貧病的、被虐待的、受人遺棄的可憐人服務。

德蕾莎修女回到加爾各答修院以後,向當地的總主教請求,准許她創立一個專為加爾各答的窮人服務的修會。總主教沒有同意。德蕾莎修女意志堅決,一再的請求。總主教答應了,並向教宗申請這件事。到一九四八年四月,當時的教宗比約十二,才特准她離開羅瑞多修會,去為窮人服務。德蕾莎修女高興極了,設法到醫護修會,接受短期的醫護訓練,然後回到貧民窟,展開了為窮苦人們的服務工作。

她在貧民區為失學窮苦兒童,辦了一所露天學校。起初的時候,她身上只有兩塊美元作基金,憑著她無比愛心和毅力,展開她的救貧事業。她為那些無法走動、無力求乞,跟奄奄一息的可憐人服務。剛開始由於她個人力量有限,而需要救助的人太多,加上她心裡的準備仍然不夠,因此困難重重。但德蕾莎修女咬緊牙關,依靠天主,祈求祂的助佑。終於有了善心人士,受修女善行的感召,捐助場所、設備、食物,而且還有人奉獻心力,協助德蕾莎修女的工作,其中不少是她過去的學生一富家的小姐。後來,有的女孩也奉獻一生,追隨德蕾莎修女為貧苦的人服務。當初,她們一共有十一位小姐,發誓要終身從事這項愛德工作。

一九五○年十月,教宗批准了德蕾莎修女,所成立的仁愛傳教修女會。這個修會除了天主教修會傳統的貧窮、貞潔、服從三個誓願以外,還加上一個要全心主意,不要酬勞為最貧苦的人,也就是基督受難的化身而服務。這個誓願使該修會與眾不同,她們不給富人服務,所作所為全部免費,不收取任何酬勞。修女們所用的經費,都是各界善心人士所捐贈。

一九五二年開始,德蕾莎修女開始了最引人注目的善行,那就是為快要死亡的窮人服務。她去領回那些被遺棄在水溝旁、垃圾堆、馬路邊的奄奄一息的人,給以適當的照顧,讓那些可憐人得到溫暖和安慰。她發現這些人,並不怨窮,不怕苦,只怕受社會遺棄,沒有人的關愛。德蕾莎修女收留這些人,讓他們得到應有的愛和人的尊嚴。

後來,德蕾莎修女在加爾各答市政府,所捐贈的印度教的伽黎神廟旁一間空房子,建立了世界知名的、而窮人得到善終的收容之家(垂死之家)有快死的窮人,因為修女們的細心照顧而起死回生的。對這樣的人,除了給予適當的照料之外,還教給他們謀生的技能。到目前為止,有好多萬沒有地方容身,被人遺棄的垂死病人,得到收容之家的修女、醫生、護士、義工的細心照顧,平靜安詳的有尊嚴的離開人世,回歸天鄉。

一九五七年德蕾莎修友的仁愛使教修女會,不但在各地開辦收容之家,又開始從事救治痲瘋病患的工作。一九八○年,全世界的收容之家為藥癮、娼妓、和受虐婦女開放。為窮人兒 一九八五年在紐約建立愛滋病患醫院。過了三年在舊金山辦了一個愛滋病患之家。一九九一年德蕾莎修女第一次回到故鄉阿爾巴尼亞,並設立了收容之家。這年為止,印度已經有一百六十八所收容之家。

德蕾莎修女對接受救助的對象,毫無限制,唯一的條件就是一貧如洗被人遺棄的人。她的傳揚福音,完全以語音和行為表現出來。對印度教徒、回教徒、佛教徒和任何人,都一視同仁,把所有貧困、病者、被遺棄的人,都當作是「受難基督」的化身。她向全世界窮苦無告的人,表示了無盡的愛,讓世人知道愛可以克服一切,讓遺棄的人知道人間仍有溫暖。

從一九四八年以來,德蕾莎修女為加爾各答街頭的「窮人中窮人服務」,亦手空拳的成立「仁愛傳教修女會」,受她的感召而效法她追隨她的人,一天天的增多。全世界五大洲有一百六十多個會院,四千多位修女,近四有修士,還有數以萬計的工作人員,和眾多的義工,在她創辦的收容之家、孤兒院、養老院、麻瘋病院、愛滋病患之家…服務。

德蕾莎修女直到晚年,每天仍和其他修女一樣,清晨四時半起床,開始靜坐、祈禱、念日課,參加彌撒,然後展開一天的工作。身上總是穿著鑲著藍邊粗白布做的會衣。天冷時加上一件毛衣。腳上穿著涼鞋,生活簡樸,而且還親自掃廁所、洗地板。她走遍各地,用雙手從垃圾中揀過無數的棄嬰,清洗癩病人的傷口上,抬過街上的垂死的窮人,抱過傷心絕望的孤苦者、緊握過無數臨終時無人過問者的手,並合他們的眼睛,陪伴他們有尊嚴的離開人世。

一九八五年一月,德蕾莎修女來台訪問,會見了蔣經國總統。她曾一針見血的說過:「台灣的社會,物質富裕,精神卻是貧窮的。」一九九五年她計劃去中國大陸設立一所仁愛之家,受到當局的婉拒,他們說國家的社會福利做得很好。台灣的台北教區和台南教區,有她的修女和修士,在當地為窮人服務。

一九九七年九月五日,德蕾莎修女,在加爾各答蒙主召逝,享年八十七,消息傳出,普世哀悼。這位生前有「印度之星」「世界最偉大的乞丐」「活聖人」多種雅號,不外是人們對她的敬愛。天主教會宣她為「聖人」的事,將很快實現。

 

德  蕾  莎  修  女

一九九七年秋,聞名世界的德蕾莎修女與世長辭,人們隨即就希望教廷能把她冊封為聖女。她為何能贏得人們對她的敬愛呢?今簡介其生平如下:

一九一零年

依搦斯剛哈波雅修(德蕾莎本名)誕生在馬其頓的首都斯哥比耶。此時的馬其頓仍然是鄂圖曼帝國的一部分。她的父親尼格拉,是一位富有的商人且積極參與反土耳其運動,爭取阿爾巴尼亞的獨立。

母親特拉納是一位很勇敢的婦女。在丈夫死後,便照顧三個兒女:拉沙、依搦斯和亞則,她親自給予兒女們宗教教育。

一九二八年

九月廿五日,十八歲的依搦斯離開自己的家鄉到愛爾蘭。在此地,她入了勞來多修會,此修女會是瑪利華德於一六○九年成立的,此修會重視派遣傳教士到印度傳教的使命。

依搦所在自己家鄉聽說此事,便願到印度傳教。

同年十二月一日,進入初學後,便改名為嬰孩耶穌瑪利德蕾莎修女。她與另一位修女瑪利瑪德蓮一起前往印度。十二月廿七日抵達可倫坡。

一九二九年

元月六日,便在喜馬拉雅山下的達耶林城開始初學訓練。

一九三一年

五月廿四日,瑪利德蕾莎修女在達耶林城發初願。

一九三七年

五月廿四日,瑪利德蕾莎修女發永願。

直到一九四八年八月,她都在加爾各答城的聖母學院教地理和宗教課,最後成為該校的負責人。

一九四六年

在九月十日的夜晚,當德蕾莎修女乘火車從加爾各答至達耶林城時,她覺得自己被召叫為最貧窮的人服務。於是她便向神師則來斯定艾森神父(Rev. Celeste Van Exem)和加爾各答的總主教佛迪南貝利耶(Ferdinand Perier)徵詢意見。他們建議她要忍耐且小心行事。

一九四八年

二月七日,瑪利德蕾莎修女寫信給羅馬的總會,請求許可她離開勞來多修女會,好專心為印度窮人服務。得到許可後,她便褪下勞來多修女會的會衣,穿上印度窮人的白長衣「沙麗」(Sari),離開勞來多會院。

她獨自走在巴特納城,再那裡的一座醫院受護士訓練。三個月後,她回到加爾各答城,暫住在安貧小姊妹會。十二月,她在加爾各答城最窮的地區莫地及爾(Moti Jihl)開辦一座小學。

一九四九年

二月六日,德蕾莎修女搬到哥美斯家庭為她準備的房子裡。

三月十九日(聖若瑟慶節),第一位初學生加入她的服務行列,她原來是德蕾莎修女在義大利城教書時的學生,她本名叫蘇巴西尼達斯(Sabashini Das)。入修會後,取名依搦斯。

一九五零年

十月七日,仁愛傳教修女會被批准了。此後,德蕾莎修女在尼爾瑪利德地方(Nirmal Hriday)為垂危者成立一個家。在斯蘇巴灣(Shishu Bharan)為棄嬰建立一座托兒所,以及在桑地納加(Shanti Nagar)為癩病人建立一座村莊。

一九六零年

德蕾莎修女卅三年為貧窮人服務,該年十月首次離開印度。這次是美國邀請她參與會議。

在回加爾各答之前.她轉赴羅馬,拜訪教宗若望廿三世(一九五八~六三年)。亞加及尼樞機承認她的傳教修女會是一個宗座的修會。

在羅馬,她首次遇到自己的哥哥拉沙,這是她十八歲離家修道後第一次與哥哥見面。

一九六五年

二月一日,仁愛仁教修女會正式被批准為宗座修會,德蕾莎修女從此可在印度之外建立修院。

七月廿六日,在南美委內瑞拉的哥哥洛德城(Cocorote)建立一所修院。

一九六八年

教宗保祿六世(一九六三-七八年)邀請德蕾莎修女在羅馬建立一座修院。

一九七一年

教宗保祿六世賜給德蕾莎修女「若望廿三世和平獎」

一九七九年

十二月十月,德蕾莎修女在挪威首都奧斯陸獲頒諾貝爾和平獎。接受她一生最引人矚目的榮譽。

一九九零年

在經歷幾次心臟病發作後,德蕾莎修女住院多時,她向當今教宗若望保祿二世申請辭去總會長的職務。但是,修會於九月八日又再次選她為會長,她又再次出任該職。

一九九一年

三月卅一日,德蕾莎修女在祖國阿爾巴尼亞的弟拉納重新開放一座主教座堂。此教堂在何斯哈(Enver Hoxha)獨裁時代,被迫改為戲院。德蕾莎修女又在自己家鄉開設三間會院,她的夢想也實現了。

一九九三年

五月,德蕾莎修女在羅馬作短暫停留,在走向聖額我略小堂時跌倒了,跌斷了三根肋骨,進入醫院治療。

由於她的心臟帳病經常發作,德蕾莎修女多次被送到印度的新德里和加爾各答醫院醫治。

一九九六年

由於身體的衰弱,德蕾莎修女再次請辭總會長的職位,這次終於通過。

一九九七年

六月五日,美國贈予德蕾莎修女「金牌獎」,感謝她對世界人民的照顧。

一九九七年

九月四日,八十七歲的德蕾莎修女與世長辭。

她的修會遍及全球一百二十五個國家,共有五百五十座修女院,她實踐了耶穌基督所說的:「你們對最小兄弟(姊妹)所做的,就是對我做的」(瑪:廿五,40)

印度政府以國葬之禮安葬她。

德蕾莎修女,Mother Teresa of Calcutta,﹙1910年8月27日-1997年9月5日,又稱做德蘭修女﹚是世界敬重的天主教慈善工作者,主要替印度加爾各答的窮人服務。於1979年得到諾貝爾和平獎。並被教宗保羅二世在2003年10月列入了天主教宣福名單Beatification。目前德蕾莎修女的名稱也變為真福德雷莎修女Blessed Teresa。

早期的生活

德蕾莎修女的本名是Agnes Gohxha Boiaxhia,她出生於南斯拉夫阿爾巴尼亞的史科培城﹙前南斯拉夫聯邦馬其頓共和國的首都﹚, 父親Nikolla Bojaxhiu是成功的地方雜貨承包商,母親是Dranafila Bojaxhiu,她是么女,上有哥哥和姐姐﹙姐姐後來也成為修女﹚。家中說阿爾巴尼亞語,是天主教家庭,在她所居住的鎮上多為穆斯林和基督徒,僅有少數的天主教徒。

德蕾莎修女很少提到她的童年生活,但她曾說,在12歲加入一個天主教的兒童慈善會時,她就感覺自己未來的職業是要幫助貧寒,15歲時,她和姐姐決定到印度接受傳教士訓練工作,18歲時,她進了愛爾蘭羅雷托修會,並在都柏林及印度大吉嶺接受傳教士訓練工作,三學期後,德蕾莎修女正式到了印度的加爾各答,在聖瑪莉羅雷托修會中學擔任教職,主要是教地理。1931年,德蕾莎正式成為修女,1937年5月更決定成為終身職的修女,並依法國19世紀最著名的修女「聖女德莉莎 (http://www.hkdavc.com/st-lady/v2-st-lady.html)」(St. Theresa)的名字和精神,改名為德蕾莎修女。1940年代初期,德蕾莎修女在聖瑪莉羅雷托修會中學擔任校長一職,但當時印度貧富差距非常大,校內一片安寧,但校外卻滿街都是無助的痲瘋患者、乞丐、流浪孩童。1946年9月10日,德蕾莎修女到印度大吉嶺的修院休息了一年,並強烈的感受到自己要為窮人服務的心,返回加爾各答後,她向當地的總主教請求離開學校和修會,但一直得不到許可。

紀錄片與知名度

1960年代,德蕾莎修女的收容所在加爾各答成為知名的地方,在街頭生病、需要幫助的患者都知道這個能夠讓他們安息的地方,收容所開始急速成長,因人手不足,開始招募世界各地的義工,透過義工的口耳相傳,也打開了世界的知名度。1969年,英國記者馬科爾•蒙格瑞奇拍攝了一部以德蕾莎修女為主的紀錄片《Something Beautiful for God》,片中拍出收容所和印度街頭驚人的貧窮和無助,以及德蕾莎修女決定終身侍奉最貧窮的人的精神,讓許多人相當感動,也讓德蕾莎修女變成了世界名人。

獲獎

1971年,教宗庇護十二世頒給德蕾莎修女「Pope John XXIII」和平獎;同年的甘乃迪獎也頒發給她,此外還有如1975年Albert Schweitzer國際獎也頒發給她,1985年美國總統自由勛章;1994年美國國會金牌;1996年11月16日美國名譽公民,和許多大學的名譽學 位;1979年的最重要的諾貝爾和平獎,也頒發給她。當時她拒絕了頒獎宴會和獎金。媒體問及她:「我們可能做什麼促進世界和平?」。她回答:「回家和愛您 的家庭。」

健康惡化與過世

1983年,德蕾莎修女到羅馬拜訪教皇保羅二世時,心臟病第一次發作。1989年心臟病第二次發作時,她接受了人工心臟的安裝,1991年從墨西哥拜訪回來之後,得到肺炎,健康日趨惡化。於是她向博濟會提出辭職,理由是她已無法像其他修女一樣全天照顧病患,在修會的秘密投票下,其他修女和修士都投票希望德蕾莎修女要留在博濟會領導她們。

1997年4月,德蕾莎修女跌倒並傷到鎖骨。8月時接受了心臟移植手術,但健康並沒有日漸好轉, 1997年3月13日,她退出了博濟會,同年9月,87歲時逝世。德蕾莎修女留下了4,000 個修會的修女,超過10萬以上的義工,還有在123個國家中的610個慈善工作。印度替她舉行了國葬。

附註:諷刺的是,同年8月31日,英國的戴安娜王妃車禍身亡, 台灣媒體花了整整一個月報導戴安娜王妃車禍和後續消息,而德蕾莎修女的過世在台灣報紙新聞及電視新聞報導則變成報端的小角,出殯當天,印度以國葬禮之,全世界各國各媒體都實況轉播,台灣則沒有任何反應,只在晚間新聞做小則消息報導。

 

「貧民窟的聖人」德蕾莎修女封聖10萬人見證 副總統陳建仁率特使團觀禮

王穎芝 2016年09月04日 16:26  http://www.storm.mg/article/162237

諾貝爾和平獎得主、被稱為「貧民窟的聖人」(Saint of the Gutters)的德蕾莎修女(Mother Teresa),4日將由教宗方濟各(Pope Francis)在梵蒂岡正式封為聖人(聖徒),超過10萬名天主教徒湧入梵蒂岡的聖伯多祿廣場(St. Peter's Square),希望見證德蕾莎修女封聖一刻。我副總統陳建仁也率領特使團出席觀禮,對教廷及教宗獻上祝福。

「貧民窟的聖人」正式封聖

教宗方濟各4日正式宣布德蕾莎修女封聖,儀式完成後,教宗在布道演說裡稱呼德蕾莎修女為「所有志願服務者的神聖典範」,他表示:「德蕾莎修女慷慨給予所有人崇高的慈心,也捍衛所有人類的生命,無論是未出生的、被人遺棄在路邊等死的,她都彎下身來,看見他們與生俱來的尊嚴。她也讓世界領袖聆聽她的話語,讓他們認清自己造成了多少人民的貧苦困境。」

教宗以拉丁文演說這段布道,稍後也被翻譯成數種語言,包括德蕾莎修女的母語阿爾巴尼亞語、加爾各答主要語言孟加拉語,還特地為了受到迫害的數百萬中國基督教徒播放中文版本。教宗也貼心表示,大眾可能不習慣立刻改口稱呼「聖人德蕾莎」,因此「我們就繼續稱呼她為德蕾莎修女吧」。

出生於阿爾巴尼亞天主教家庭的德蕾莎修女,1931年開始在印度大城加爾各答(Kolkata)服務,她所創立的仁愛傳教修女會(Missionaries of Charity)和「垂死之家」(Nirmal Hriday)照顧瀕死無依者,慈善事蹟傳遍全球,1979年獲頒諾貝爾和平獎,1997年過世前,德蕾莎修女還在全世界建立許多醫院、修道院與收容之家。

但是,只有慈善事蹟並不足以被教廷封為聖人,天主教冊封聖人的過程頗為繁複,首先,申請流程通常是在候選人去世5年後,由候選人所服務的教區發起,蒐集好候選人的生平奉獻事蹟,交由專責部門「冊封聖人部」(Congregation for the Causes of Saints)審核。

聖人部會向教宗推薦,建議教宗宣布候選人的「英雄德行」,此時候選人成為「尊者」(The Venerable),供信徒以尊者之名轉禱,而若轉禱中至少發生2次「奇蹟」(常見事例為不靠醫療手術治癒信眾疾病),經審核委員會長期觀察,確認病患完全痊癒、而且痊癒原因無法以醫學解釋後,才會呈交教宗封聖。

神蹟審核過程引發批評

德蕾莎修女被認證的神蹟,第一起為1998年印度一名患有惡性腫瘤的50歲婦女,將德蕾莎修女照片綁在腹部一夜後腫瘤完全消失。第二起則為一名患有致命腦瘤的巴西男子,在家人向德蕾莎修女代禱後於2008年奇蹟痊癒,這項神蹟去年底才獲確認。審核奇蹟的委員會包含各大樞機主教、神學家和醫生,不過,審核過程常因曠日費時、開銷龐大而招來批評,2015年兩名義大利記者出版《貪婪》(Avarice)及《聖殿堛滌茪H》(Merchants in the Temple)二書,也揭露外界捐獻者以贈禮等手段加速封聖程序,估計每次封聖平均耗費50萬歐元(約合新台幣1800萬元),捐款的用途也未明確規範,公正程度引人疑竇。

除了審核過程,德蕾莎修女封聖一案從1999年遞交申請開始,還遭受諸多批評。第一個神蹟所治癒的印度婦人,其丈夫曾表示妻子是因醫療手術而病癒,受到教會施壓才會謊稱為神蹟。但隨即又改口承認神蹟存在,引發質疑。

另外,許多報導曾指出《垂死之家》衛生環境惡劣、甚至禁用止痛藥,也拒絕進一步為病患治療。仁愛傳教修女會的帳目不透明、曾收受海地殘暴獨裁者杜華利(Jean-Claude Duvalier)的捐款等爭議,也都令外界質疑德蕾莎修女的聖人資格。

教宗肯定德蕾莎精神 10萬人參與封聖儀式

但是,儘管德蕾莎修女有諸多爭議,她跨越國家、種族、性別與宗教的善行,仍是無可否認的偉大事蹟。《紐約時報》(The New York Times)分析,德蕾莎修女的精神呼應了教宗方濟各不斷強調的宗旨,即教會應該照顧、包容世上最貧苦的邊緣族群。方濟各也於2015年宣佈自2015年12月8日至2016年11月8日為「非經常性聖年」(Holy Year of Mercy),象徵教廷為全球信徒提供獲得救恩的特殊途徑。《紐時》認為,方濟各以德蕾莎修女封聖儀式作為聖年結束前最大規模的活動,也凸顯了他對於德蕾莎修女的讚譽有加。

德蕾莎修女封聖儀式規模宏大,預計將湧入10萬名朝聖的教徒觀禮。而各國除派出駐教廷大使外,共有12國還特派使團出席,包括我國與美國、印度、荷蘭、義大利、科索沃、巴拿馬等。雖然近日頻頻傳出梵蒂岡有意與中國推進關係,但此次並未邀請中國參加典禮。

本身即為虔誠天主教徒的副總統陳建仁,也率領特使團前往觀禮,特地選贈台灣出版有關方濟各的書籍,藉以對教宗獻上祝福。我國藝文團體「台北愛樂室內合唱團」也受邀在德蕾莎修女封聖典禮演出,陳建仁應邀擔任典禮演出的榮譽團長。
 

德蕾莎修女今「封聖」 2神蹟獲認證

2016-09-04 06:59 http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1815344

〔即時新聞/綜合報導〕教宗方濟各今天將為有「貧民聖人」之稱的已故諾貝爾和平獎得主德蕾莎修女(Mother Teresa of Calcutta)封聖,依傳統「封聖」需要確認2項神蹟,而德蕾莎不僅具備,且與重病患者神奇痊癒有關。

綜合外電報導,罹患胃癌的印度女子,在德蕾莎修女離世1週年時,醫院住院治療期間,在腹部纏上一個德蘭修女紀念章,其後體內腫瘤消失,這項神蹟2002年獲確認。

第2項神蹟則於去年底獲確認,患有致命腦瘤的巴西男子,在家人向德蘭修女祈求代禱後,2008年奇蹟痊癒令醫生無法解釋。

本報報導,德蕾莎修女於1946年她走入印度加爾各答貧民窟開始為「最窮的窮人」服務,1979年獲諾貝爾和平獎,1997年逝世,今天是她逝世19週年紀念日,被「封聖」,德蕾莎留有「加爾各答的天使」、「貧民聖人」、「20世紀基督教精神化身」等美譽。

 

貧民窟聖人  德雷莎修女辭世19年封聖

http://p.udn.com.tw/upf/newmedia/2016_data/20160902_motherteresa_/index_.html

4日,天主教教宗方濟各將為德雷莎修女舉行封聖儀式,數十萬人預計將親赴梵蒂岡聖伯多祿廣場參加儀式。她畢生在印度加爾各答最窮困的貧民窟,為全球最低下的平民服務,被譽為「貧民窟聖人」,在死後19年封聖,收容之家發言人向《BBC》表示,「我們沒有任何慶祝計畫,在這裡,我們已經非常快樂。」

副總統陳建仁昨日(9/2)也為此出訪梵蒂岡,進行「固邦之旅」 ,擔任蔡英文總統特使代表出席封聖儀式。

19年的快速封聖路

德雷莎修女死後兩年就進入快速封聖程序,會說快速是因通常封聖程序約在當事人過世5年後才會開始。2003年10月德雷莎修女第一個奇蹟就被認可:讓確診胃癌末期的印度女子康復。第二個奇蹟則在去年12月被認可:讓巴西腦瘤男子安椎諾痊癒。

早期教會將殉教烈士的遺骸自墓地遷移到教堂,就等於封聖。但1983年時任教宗若望保祿二世後規定,必須向教宗提出封聖申請,申請封聖者必須在宣福禮後,又有兩件神蹟被發掘且經證實,才能正式封聖。

Step1:
尊者(Venerable)
首先由教區主教調查「候選者」的生活事蹟、著作及言行,再由梵蒂岡神學家進行評估。經由評估小組及教廷封聖委員會的樞機主教團認可後,將在世時有英勇德行的信徒追贈為「尊者」。
1999年,前教宗若望保祿二世授意,由加爾各答教區主教委員會調查相關事蹟及文獻。

Step2:
宣福(Beatification)
封聖第一階段,候選者除在世時有英勇德行外,還要加上一個已經證實的信徒向其祈求而獲應驗的神蹟,然後由教宗主持「宣福禮」成為「真福品」(Blessed)。天主教徒相信真福在天堂中可以代為向天主祈福,因此真福具有幫信徒代禱的能力。
2003年10月,前教宗若望保祿二世,認可德雷莎修女第一個奇蹟,曾被診斷胃癌末期的印度女子莫妮卡•貝斯拉痊癒。並將德雷莎修女列入了天主教宣福名單。目前德雷莎修女的名稱也變為「真福德雷莎修女」(Blessed Teresa)。

Step3:
封聖(Canonization)
需要出現第二個奇蹟,才能由教宗正式宣布該已故信徒有資格受公眾崇敬,並將其姓名正式登錄在聖人名冊上。

2015年12月,教宗方濟各認可德雷莎修女第二個奇蹟,巴西腦瘤男子安椎諾痊癒,他與妻子也將出席封聖儀式。

2016年9月4日,梵蒂岡舉行封聖儀式,副總統陳建仁代表出席。

曾獲諾貝爾和平獎的德雷莎修女是天主教會2千年來最有影響力的女性之一,她畢生在印度加爾各答最窮困的貧民窟,為全球最低下的平民服務。德雷莎修女1910年生於鄂圖曼土耳其帝國的馬其頓,16歲成為修女,並在1929年前往印度。

推動德雷莎修女封聖的仁愛傳教修女會(MoC)克洛迪舒克神父說:「即使在流行文化中,德雷莎修女也是善良、仁慈與博愛的象徵。」

不穿修女服 改披白粗布沙麗

1948年起,已經在印度服務近20年的德雷莎修女,決意離開傳統修女會,救助流落街頭的窮人。她捨棄傳統修女服飾,改穿印度種姓社會最低階「吠舍」所穿著的白粗布沙麗。

1952年更創立為貧困流浪者照護的收容之家,無條件為窮困者服務,包括藥癮、娼妓、受虐婦女。在收容之家的號召下,超過4500名修女在全世界各地服務,印度目前共有19間為女性、孤兒及老人服務的收容院所。

聖人非完人

德雷莎修女封聖的消息也引發不小爭議,因為她在貧民窟的作為受到不少人質疑,像是很少為末期病患減緩疼痛,或根除造成貧困的原因。英國醫學期刊「刺胳針」(The Lancet)1991年造訪德雷莎修女在加爾各答經營的慈善垂死之家,發現許多未經訓練的照護者無法辨別病患無法救治的關鍵時刻。

亦有人指出她和某些受爭議權勢人物有不明的關係,像是她曾與海地獨裁者杜瓦希利(Jean-Claude Duvalier)往來。

克洛迪舒克神父反駁批評者的說法,表示德雷莎修女的任務是提供人們在生命的最後有個舒適的環境,而非成立醫院。他說:「我們不想證明聖人是完美的,因為沒有人是完美的。」

1985年曾訪台

德雷莎修女1985年訪台,時任總統蔣經國在總統府接見表示,德雷莎代表慈愛祥和,一生服務貧苦大眾,為促進人類和平所表現的犧牲奉獻精神,正是人類博愛行為的典範,值得世人學習。

當時的內政部長吳伯雄也以內政一等獎章,頒贈給德雷莎修女,對她終身奉獻,照顧窮人的偉大襟懷,表示崇高的敬意。德雷莎修女也被譽為「貧病者之母」。

「台灣缺乏愛」是德雷莎修女訪台時留下的評語,她說,「物質的貧窮容易解決,而心靈上的貧乏、寂寞,卻是今日多數人的問題。台灣可能沒有缺乏麵包的飢餓,但一定有愛的飢餓,缺少天主愛的話語的飢餓。」

聖人語錄

「 如果你很謙卑,那麼無論是誇讚還是羞辱,沒有任何事能夠擊垮你,因為你清楚自己是誰。」

「有時我們以為貧窮只是挨餓,衣不蔽體,無家可歸。但真正的貧窮是感覺不被需要,不被愛,不被關心。」

「快樂無須探尋:只要以愛待人,就能得到快樂。」

「 寧可因好意而犯錯,也不要以刻薄創造奇蹟。」

 

Religion
Mother Teresa: ‘Saint of the gutters’ canonized at Vatican

By Nicole Winfield | AP September 4 at 11:43 AM
https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/religion/mother-teresa-honored-as-saint-and-model-of-mercy/2016/09/04/7591be12-725f-11e6-9781-49e591781754_story.html?tid=hybrid_collaborative_1_na

VATICAN CITY — Elevating the “saint of the gutters” to one of the Catholic Church’s highest honors, Pope Francis on Sunday praised Mother Teresa for her radical dedication to society’s outcasts and her courage in shaming world leaders for the “crimes of poverty they themselves created.”

An estimated 120,000 people filled St. Peter’s Square for the canonization ceremony, less than half the number who turned out for her 2003 beatification. It was nevertheless the highlight of Francis’ Holy Year of Mercy and quite possibly one of the defining moments of his mercy-focused papacy.

Francis has been dedicated to ministering to society’s most marginal, from prostitutes to prisoners, refugees to the homeless. In that way, while the canonization of “St. Teresa of Kolkata” was a celebration of her life and work, it was also something of an affirmation of Francis’ own papal priorities, which have earned him praise and criticism alike.

“Let us carry her smile in our hearts and give it to those whom we meet along our journey, especially those who suffer,” Francis said in his homily.

Born Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu on Aug. 26, 1910, Teresa came to India in 1929 as a sister of the Loreto order. In 1946, she received what she described as a “call within a call” to found a new order dedicated to caring for the most unloved and unwanted, the “poorest of the poor” in the slums of her adopted city, Kolkata.

The Missionaries of Charity order went on to become one of the most well-known in the world, with more than 4,000 sisters in their trademark blue-trimmed white saris doing as Teresa instructed: “small things with great love.”

At the order’s Mother House in Kolkata, hundreds of people watched the Mass on TV and clapped with joy when Francis declared her a saint.

They gathered around Teresa’s tomb which was decorated with flowers, a single candle and a photo of the wrinkled saint.

“I am so proud to be from Kolkata,” said Sanjay Sarkar, a high school student on hand for the celebration. “Mother Teresa belonged to Kolkata, and she has been declared a saint.”

For Francis, Teresa put into action his ideal of the church as a “field hospital” for those suffering both material and spiritual poverty, living on the physical and existential peripheries of society.

In his homily, Francis praised her as the merciful saint who defended the lives of the unborn, sick and abandoned, recalling her strong opposition to abortion which often put her at odds with progressives around the world.

“She bowed down before those who were spent, left to die on the side of the road, seeing in them their God-given dignity,” he said.

Teresa’s most famous critic, Christopher Hitchens, has accused her of taking donations from dictators — charges church authorities deny. Francis chose to emphasize her other dealings with the powerful.

“She made her voice heard before the powers of the world, so that they might recognize their guilt for the crimes of poverty they themselves created,” he said, repeating for emphasis “the crimes of poverty.”

Hundreds of Missionaries of Charity sisters had front-row seats at the Mass, alongside 1,500 homeless people and 13 heads of state or government and even royalty: Queen Sofia of Spain. For the homeless, Francis offered a luncheon afterward in the Vatican auditorium, catered by a Neapolitan pizza maker who brought his own ovens for the event.

“Her heart, she gave it to the world,” said Charlotte Samba, a 52-year-old mother of three who traveled with a church group from Gabon for the Mass. “Mercy, forgiveness, good works: It is the heart of a mother for the poor.”

While big, the crowd attending the canonization wasn’t even half of the 300,000 who turned out for Mother Teresa’s 2003 beatification celebrated by an ailing St. John Paul II. The low turnout suggested that financial belt-tightening and security fears in the wake of Islamic extremist attacks in Europe may have kept pilgrims away.

Those fears prompted a huge, 3,000-strong law enforcement presence to secure the area around the Vatican and close the airspace above. Many of those security measures have been in place for the duration of the Jubilee year, which officially ends in November.

While Francis is clearly keen to hold Teresa up as a model for her joyful dedication to the poor, he was also recognizing holiness in a nun who lived most of her adult life in spiritual agony, sensing that God had abandoned her.

According to correspondence that came to light after she died in 1997, Teresa experienced what the church calls a “dark night of the soul” — a period of spiritual doubt, despair and loneliness that many of the great mystics experienced. In Teresa’s case, it lasted for nearly 50 years — an almost unheard of trial.

For the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, the Canadian priest who spearheaded Teresa’s saint-making campaign, the revelations were further confirmation of Mother Teresa’s heroic saintliness. He said that by canonizing her, Francis is recognizing that she not only shared the material poverty of the poor but the spiritual poverty of those who feel “unloved, unwanted, uncared for.”

“If I’m going to be a saint, I’m going to be a saint of darkness, and I’ll be asking from heaven to be the light of those who are in darkness on Earth,” she once wrote.

Francis has never publicly mentioned this “darkness,” but he has in many ways modeled his papacy on Teresa and her simple lifestyle and selfless service to the poor: He eschewed the Apostolic Palace for a hotel room, made welcoming migrants and the poor a hallmark and has fiercely denounced today’s “throwaway” culture that discards the unborn, the sick and the elderly with ease.

Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity went on to become a global order of nuns, priests, brothers and lay co-workers. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and died in 1997. Soon thereafter, John Paul placed her on the fast-track for sainthood.

Francis has confessed that he was somewhat intimidated by Teresa, knowing well she was as tough as she was tender. He quipped during a 2014 visit to Albania that he would never have wanted her as his superior because she was so firm with her sisters.

But on Sunday, he admitted that even he would find it hard to call her “St. Teresa,” since her tenderness was so maternal.

 

sep 4, 11:40 AM EDT
MOTHER TERESA: 'SAINT OF THE GUTTERS' CANONIZED AT VATICAN
BY NICOLE WINFIELD
ASSOCIATED PRESS
https://www.apnews.com/045802cbf4894c868cf82a37cd5680a0/Mother-Teresa:-'Saint-of--the-gutters'-canonized-at-Vatican

VATICAN CITY (AP) -- Elevating the "saint of the gutters" to one of the Catholic Church's highest honors, Pope Francis on Sunday praised Mother Teresa for her radical dedication to society's outcasts and her courage in shaming world leaders for the "crimes of poverty they themselves created."

An estimated 120,000 people filled St. Peter's Square for the canonization ceremony, less than half the number who turned out for her 2003 beatification. It was nevertheless the highlight of Francis' Holy Year of Mercy and quite possibly one of the defining moments of his mercy-focused papacy.

Francis has been dedicated to ministering to society's most marginal, from prostitutes to prisoners, refugees to the homeless. In that way, while the canonization of "St. Teresa of Kolkata" was a celebration of her life and work, it was also something of an affirmation of Francis' own papal priorities, which have earned him praise and criticism alike.

"Let us carry her smile in our hearts and give it to those whom we meet along our journey, especially those who suffer," Francis said in his homily.

Born Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu on Aug. 26, 1910, Teresa came to India in 1929 as a sister of the Loreto order. In 1946, she received what she described as a "call within a call" to found a new order dedicated to caring for the most unloved and unwanted, the "poorest of the poor" in the slums of her adopted city, Kolkata.

The Missionaries of Charity order went on to become one of the most well-known in the world, with more than 4,000 sisters in their trademark blue-trimmed white saris doing as Teresa instructed: "small things with great love."

At the order's Mother House in Kolkata, hundreds of people watched the Mass on TV and clapped with joy when Francis declared her a saint.

They gathered around Teresa's tomb which was decorated with flowers, a single candle and a photo of the wrinkled saint.

"I am so proud to be from Kolkata," said Sanjay Sarkar, a high school student on hand for the celebration. "Mother Teresa belonged to Kolkata, and she has been declared a saint."

For Francis, Teresa put into action his ideal of the church as a "field hospital" for those suffering both material and spiritual poverty, living on the physical and existential peripheries of society.

In his homily, Francis praised her as the merciful saint who defended the lives of the unborn, sick and abandoned, recalling her strong opposition to abortion which often put her at odds with progressives around the world.

"She bowed down before those who were spent, left to die on the side of the road, seeing in them their God-given dignity," he said.

Teresa's most famous critic, Christopher Hitchens, has accused her of taking donations from dictators - charges church authorities deny. Francis chose to emphasize her other dealings with the powerful.

"She made her voice heard before the powers of the world, so that they might recognize their guilt for the crimes of poverty they themselves created," he said, repeating for emphasis "the crimes of poverty."

Hundreds of Missionaries of Charity sisters had front-row seats at the Mass, alongside 1,500 homeless people and 13 heads of state or government and even royalty: Queen Sofia of Spain. For the homeless, Francis offered a luncheon afterward in the Vatican auditorium, catered by a Neapolitan pizza maker who brought his own ovens for the event.

"Her heart, she gave it to the world," said Charlotte Samba, a 52-year-old mother of three who traveled with a church group from Gabon for the Mass. "Mercy, forgiveness, good works: It is the heart of a mother for the poor."

While big, the crowd attending the canonization wasn't even half of the 300,000 who turned out for Mother Teresa's 2003 beatification celebrated by an ailing St. John Paul II. The low turnout suggested that financial belt-tightening and security fears in the wake of Islamic extremist attacks in Europe may have kept pilgrims away.

Those fears prompted a huge, 3,000-strong law enforcement presence to secure the area around the Vatican and close the airspace above. Many of those security measures have been in place for the duration of the Jubilee year, which officially ends in November.

While Francis is clearly keen to hold Teresa up as a model for her joyful dedication to the poor, he was also recognizing holiness in a nun who lived most of her adult life in spiritual agony, sensing that God had abandoned her.

According to correspondence that came to light after she died in 1997, Teresa experienced what the church calls a "dark night of the soul" - a period of spiritual doubt, despair and loneliness that many of the great mystics experienced. In Teresa's case, it lasted for nearly 50 years - an almost unheard of trial.

For the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, the Canadian priest who spearheaded Teresa's saint-making campaign, the revelations were further confirmation of Mother Teresa's heroic saintliness. He said that by canonizing her, Francis is recognizing that she not only shared the material poverty of the poor but the spiritual poverty of those who feel "unloved, unwanted, uncared for."

"If I'm going to be a saint, I'm going to be a saint of darkness, and I'll be asking from heaven to be the light of those who are in darkness on Earth," she once wrote.

Francis has never publicly mentioned this "darkness," but he has in many ways modeled his papacy on Teresa and her simple lifestyle and selfless service to the poor: He eschewed the Apostolic Palace for a hotel room, made welcoming migrants and the poor a hallmark and has fiercely denounced today's "throwaway" culture that discards the unborn, the sick and the elderly with ease.

Teresa's Missionaries of Charity went on to become a global order of nuns, priests, brothers and lay co-workers. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and died in 1997. Soon thereafter, John Paul placed her on the fast-track for sainthood.

Francis has confessed that he was somewhat intimidated by Teresa, knowing well she was as tough as she was tender. He quipped during a 2014 visit to Albania that he would never have wanted her as his superior because she was so firm with her sisters.

But on Sunday, he admitted that even he would find it hard to call her "St. Teresa," since her tenderness was so maternal.

"Spontaneously, we will continue to say 'Mother Teresa,'" he said to applause.

---

Associated Press writer Bernat Armangue in Kolkata, India, contributed to this report.

---

Follow Nicole Winfield at www.twitter.com/nwinfield

---

A previous version of this story has been corrected to say Queen Sofia of Spain is not a head of state or government.

 

Noticias
Hitos en la vida de la Madre Teresa

https://apnews.com/7c4bedad775748c79e091e6971cd5d28

l papa Francisco canonizó el domingo a la Madre Teresa, que se ocupaba de los "más pobres entre los pobres", como símbolo máximo de su Año de la Misericordia. A continuación, algunos hitos en la vida del santo más reciente de la Iglesia católica.

1910: Agnes Gonxe Bojaxhiu nace el 26 de agosto en Skopje, en la actual Macedonia, la menor de tres hijos de un constructor albanés.

1928: Ingresa como novicia en Irlanda en la orden de Loreto, que regenta escuelas misionales en la India, y toma el nombre de sor Teresa.

1929: Llega a Kolkata para enseñar en la escuela secundaria St. Mary.

1937: Hace sus votos definitivos y toma el nombre de Madre Teresa.

1946: El 10 de septiembre, viajando en tren a Darjeeling, recibe un "llamado dentro del llamado" de Jesús para "servirle entre los más pobres entre los pobres".

1948: Se le permite abandonar la orden para instalarse en los barrios más pobres de Kolkata, donde funda su primera escuela.

1950: El 7 de octubre funda oficialmente las Misioneras de la Caridad como congregación religiosa.

1952: Funda Nirmal Hriday ("Corazón Puro"), un hogar para moribundos, seguido el año siguiente por su primer hogar para huérfanos.

1962: Obtiene su primer galardón por su obra humanitaria: el premio Padma Shri a los "servicios destacados". A lo largo de los años, utiliza el dinero de esos premios para fundar decenas de hogares.

1979: Gana el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

1982: Convence a israelíes y palestinos que suspendan hostilidades el tiempo necesario para rescatar a 37 niños atrapados en un hospital en Beirut.

1983: Sufre un ataque cardíaco durante una visita al papa Juan Pablo segundo en Roma.

1985: Recibe la Medalla de la Libertad, la mayor condecoración civil de Estados Unidos.

1989: Sufre un segundo ataque cardíaco, casi fatal. Se le implanta un marcapasos.

1990: Anuncia su intención de renunciar y convoca a un cónclave de hermanas para elegir a la sucesora. En votación secreta, resulta reelegida con un solo voto en contra, el suyo, y retira su renuncia.

1991: Sufre neumonía en Tijuana, México, lo que le produce insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva, y es hospitalizada en La Jolla, California.

1996: 16 de noviembre, recibe la ciudadanía honoraria de Estados Unidos..

1997: Muere el 5 de septiembre en Kolkata y recibe un funeral de estado.

2003: Juan Pablo II la beatifica frente a 300.000 personas en la Plaza de San Pedro.

2015: Se allana el camino a la canonización cuando el papa Francisco declara que la curación de un hombre brasileño que padecía abscesos en el cerebro fue milagrosa.

2016: Es canonizada el 4 de septiembre.


Religion
AP EXPLAINS: Saints, miracles and Mother Teresa

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/E/EU_REL_AP_EXPLAINS_SAINTHOOD?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT

VATICAN CITY (AP) — For many of the poor and destitute whom Mother Teresa served, the tiny nun was a living saint. Many at the Vatican would agree, but the Catholic Church nevertheless has a grueling process to make it official, involving volumes of historical research, the hunt for miracles and teams of experts to weigh the evidence. In Mother Teresa's case, the process will come to a formal end Sunday when Pope Francis declares the church's newest saint. Here's a look at the process:

HOW SAINTS ARE MADE

The process to find a new saint usually begins in the diocese where he or she lived or died; in Mother Teresa's case, Kolkata. A postulator — essentially the cheerleader spearheading the project — gathers testimony and documentation and presents the case to the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints. If the congregation's experts agree the candidate lived a virtuous life, the case is forwarded to the pope, who signs a decree attesting to the candidate's "heroic virtues."

If the postulator finds someone was healed after praying for the candidate's intercession, and if the cure cannot be medically explained, the case is presented to the congregation as the possible miracle needed for beatification, the first major hurdle in the saint-making process. Panels of doctors, theologians, bishops and cardinals must certify that the cure was instantaneous, complete and lasting — and was due to the intercession of the saintly candidate. If convinced, the congregation sends the case to the pope, who signs a decree saying the candidate can be beatified. A second miracle is needed for the person to be declared a saint.

___

AFTER SCANDAL, REFORMING THE PROCESS

The saint-making process has long been criticized as being expensive, secretive, ripe for abuses and subject to political, financial or theological winds that can push one candidate to sainthood in record time and leave another languishing for centuries. Pope Francis has raised eyebrows with some rule-breaking beatifications and canonizations, waiving the need for miracles and canonizing more people in a single clip — more than 800 15th-century martyrs — than John Paul did in his 26-year pontificate (482).

Francis has also imposed new financial accountability standards on the multimillion-dollar machine after uncovering gross abuses that were subsequently revealed in two books. The books estimated the average cost for each beatification at around 500,000 euros ($550,000), with much of the proceeds going to a few lucky people with contracts to do the time-consuming investigations into the candidates' lives. For the record, the postulator of Mother Teresa's cause says her case, which stretched over 20 years, cost less than 100,000 euros.

___

FROM MOTHER TO SAINT TERESA

Why is Mother Teresa a saint? And why is she the icon for Pope Francis' Holy Year of Mercy? For her admirers, it's obvious.

"Mother is known throughout the whole world for her works of mercy, recognized by Christians and non-Christians alike," said Sister Mary Prema Pierick, the current superior general of Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity order. "Reflecting about Mother and the life of our mother, we see all the works of mercy — corporal and spiritual — put into action."

Her biographer, the Rev. Lush Gjergji, said she founded her life on two pillars: "For God and for the human being."

"She crossed all barriers like castes, races, gender, ethnic, religious, cultural and turned into and remained the mother of the whole civilization," he said. "In the history of sainthood and that of Christianity, she is the first saint of Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims, non-religious and of course for Christians."

She was not beloved by all, however. She was criticized for the quality of care in her clinics and accused of taking donations from Haitian dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier and disgraced American financier Charles Keating.

___

FRANCIS' SAINT

Mother Teresa is most often associated with St. John Paul II, who was pope during the heyday of her work. But Pope Francis seems more a pope in her likeness, eschewing the Apostolic Palace for a simple hotel room, focusing his ministry on the most marginal of society and traveling to the peripheries to find lost souls — just as Mother Teresa did. In one of his first public audiences after being elected pope in 2013, Francis said he longed for a "church that is poor and for the poor." That Francis is crowning his Jubilee Year of Mercy with Teresa's canonization is evidence that he sees her as the model of the merciful church he envisions.

___

SECURING THE CEREMONY

With more than 100,000 people expected to jam St. Peter's Square on Sunday, including at least 13 heads of state or government, security is an obvious concern given that the Islamic State group has said Rome is their ultimate target as the seat of Christianity. For months now, police have closed to traffic the main boulevard leading to the Vatican. In anticipation of the throngs expected Sunday, Rome police have added an extra 1,000 officers, many of them anti-terrorism teams, to a law enforcement force that has already been beefed up by 2,000 for the Jubilee year. The security plan calls for the area around St. Peter's to be divided into three areas with reinforced controls starting Saturday night and lasting through Sunday. The airspace over the Vatican and surrounding areas will be closed.

 

EUROPE
Mother Teresa Is Made a Saint by Pope Francis
By ELISABETTA POVOLEDOSEPT. 3, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/05/world/europe/mother-teresa-named-saint-by-pope-francis.html?hpw&rref=world&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0

VATICAN CITY — She was known throughout the world as Mother Teresa, considered a saint by many for her charitable work among the poorest of the world’s poor. On Sunday morning, Pope Francis officially bestowed that title at her canonization ceremony in St. Peter’s Square.

“I think, perhaps, we may have some difficulty in calling her St. Teresa: Her holiness is so near to us, so tender and so fruitful, that we continue to spontaneously call her Mother Teresa,” the pope said in off-the-cuff remarks during his homily.

It was a festive atmosphere at the Vatican, under a broiling summer sun, and several flags fluttered in the light breeze: from Albania, representing the Roman Catholic nun’s ethnic origins; from Macedonia, to note her birthplace, Skopje; from India, where she spent most of her life, working in the slums of Kolkata; and from the many other countries where her humility and selflessness touched countless lives.

When Francis proclaimed her St. Teresa at the end of the formal ceremony, in Latin, the crowd erupted in sustained applause.

“We are proud of her, all of India is proud,” said Marina Borneo Sam, who traveled from Kolkata with her mother to be at the ceremony. “She may no longer be there, but we still feel her spirit around us.”

For some, Mother Teresa’s saintliness was so evident from the start that her canonization was just a formality.

“For me, nothing has changed,” said Giovanna Tommasi, a lay member of the Missionaries of Charity, the religious order founded by Mother Teresa in 1950. “When you were fortunate enough to know her, as I did, then today’s celebration doesn’t change much.”

The canonization was a highlight of the Jubilee year, which the pope had proclaimed to celebrate the theme of mercy, and on Sunday he called Mother Teresa a “tireless worker of mercy.”

His homily was primarily addressed to volunteer workers celebrating the Jubilee. “Today, I pass on this emblematic figure of womanhood and of consecrated life to the whole world of volunteers: May she be your model of holiness,” Francis said.

He also praised her “defense of human life, those unborn and those abandoned and discarded,” emphasizing her relentless petitioning against abortion.

Mother Teresa earned fame and accolades over a lifetime spent working with the poor and the sick, and with orphans, lepers and AIDS patients.

She made the cover of Time magazine in December 1975 for an article that acknowledged her as one of the world’s “living saints.” When told that she had won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979, she said, “I am unworthy.”

A portrait of Mother Teresa, described by Pope John Paul II as an “icon of the good Samaritan,” was displayed on the facade of St. Peter’s Basilica and showing her in her distinctive blue-trimmed white sari. The portrait was commissioned by the Knights of Columbus and painted by Chas Fagan, an American artist.

Because of her celebrity, she stepped where many religious figures do not. “She made her voice heard before the powers of this world, so that they might recognize their guilt for the crime of poverty they created,” the pope said on Sunday.

Mother Teresa’s supporters praise her selflessness and humility, noting that though she associated with royalty, government leaders and popes, she continued to live simply until her death, at age 87, in 1997.

“She was one with us,” Sister Mary Prema Pierick, the superior general of the Missionaries of Charity, said at a Vatican news conference on Friday. “She never wanted or accepted anything not common with all the sisters.”

The order that Mother Teresa started with 12 nuns now numbers more than 5,800 people in 139 countries, including two orders of brothers and one of priests. The congregation continues her work of ministering to the world’s least privileged, those she called “the poorest of the poor.”

Mother Teresa was “both mother and teacher,” Sister Prema said. “She lived the religious life with so much joy and enthusiasm that we all wanted to be close with her.”

Her gift, she added, was “to make everybody aware of their own responsibility,” and inspire people with the knowledge that “each one of us can make a difference.”

Mother Teresa was canonized 19 years after her death, remarkably fast for modern times.

John Paul II, who is now also a saint, went against protocol when he allowed the canonization process to begin two years after her death, not the customary five. He beatified her in 2003 after a miracle, the healing of a tumor-stricken woman, was attributed to her intercession.

A second miracle, recognized by Francis last year, opened the way to sanctity.

“I am very grateful for this miracle,” said Marcilio Haddad Andrino, a Brazilian who recovered from a life-threatening brain infection in 2008 after his family prayed to Mother Teresa. Mr. Andrino came to Rome for the ceremony and was present at the Vatican news conference.

“The merciful Lord looks at us all without any distinction,” Mr. Andrino said. “Maybe it was me this time, but maybe tomorrow it will be someone else.”

Mother Teresa, for all her acclaim, was not without critics. Some have questioned the hygiene and medical standards adopted by the sisters in some of the shelters and clinics run by the Missionaries of Charity. Others, like Dr. Aroup Chatterjee, have criticized what they call a “cult of suffering” that was prevalent in some of the homes run by the order.

In a book, and in the documentary “Hell’s Angel,” the author and essayist Christopher Hitchens accused Mother Teresa of being an “ally of the status quo,” also calling her a “zealot” and a “fanatic.” Mr. Hitchens charged that instead of empowering the poor to seek a better future, she instilled the idea that their condition was permanent.

Her campaigns against birth control and abortion, which she once called “the greatest destroyer of peace today,” angered feminists and raised concerns with aid organizations.

Some doctors and officials in India have also challenged the narrative of Monica Besra, the woman said to have benefited from Mother Teresa’s first miraculous intervention, saying Ms. Besra had been suffering from a cyst, not a tumor.

Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu in 1910 to Albanian parents in Skopje, then part of the Ottoman Empire and now the capital of Macedonia. Today, she is regarded as the city’s most important native, and celebrations for her canonization will be held there for a week.

“Skopje and the citizens of Skopje will use this opportunity to thank the saint Mother Teresa and to continue on the path that she unselfishly showed us — the path toward understanding, compassion and love,” said Koce Trajanovski, the mayor of Skopje, where streets and clinics are named for her. A memorial in her honor has attracted more than 700,000 visitors over the last five years.

The canonization was broadcast live on the Vatican’s television station and streamed online through a Vatican website. It was presented on Vatican Radio in seven languages, including Albanian.

Tens of thousands of people gathered at St. Peter’s Square on Sunday, along with 15 official government delegations, including representatives of India and the United States. The chief Vatican spokesman, Greg Burke, said all 100,000 tickets that the Holy See had made available had been distributed.

Mr. Burke recalled a visit to the Vatican press room that Mother Teresa made “many years ago.” “She’s not the only saint to have passed through here,” he said, “but there haven’t been many, I think.”

She is the perfect saint for the year of mercy, the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, the superior general of the Missionary Fathers of Charity, one of the religious institutes founded by Mother Teresa, said on Friday.

Mother Teresa was “so aware of her need for mercy before God. She was very much at home with her own poverty,” added Father Kolodiejchuk, the chief promoter of her case for sainthood. “This Year of Mercy is first of all a reminder to all of us that before God we all stand in need of mercy; so in this we are all poor.”

 

Pope Francis approves sainthood for Mother Teresa for September 4

The pontiff's announcement will mean she is elevated to an official icon for the Catholic faith later this year

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/vaticancityandholysee/12194601/Pope-Francis-approves-sainthood-for-Mother-Teresa-for-September-4.html

By Andrea Vogt, Bologna and agencies  12:27PM GMT 15 Mar 2016

Pope Francis on Tuesday approved sainthood for Mother Teresa, the missionary nun who became a global if controversial symbol of compassion for her care of the sick and destitute.

The pontiff set September 4 as the date for her canonisation, elevating her to an official icon for the Catholic faith.

The move comes 19 years after the death of the Albanian nun who dedicated most of her adult life to working with the poor of Kolkata, India.

The final step paving the way to sainthood comes 12 years after she was beatified by Pope John Paul II in a ceremony that drew 300,000 pilgrims to Rome.

Details of the canonisation ceremony have not been released, but Vatican observers expect it to be held in Rome as part of the Church’s Holy Year festivities.

Teresa, who was 87 when she died in 1997, was revered by Catholics and many others around the world. She won the 1979 Nobel peace prize for her work with the poor.

But she was also a controversial and divisive figure with critics branding her a religious imperialist whose fervent opposition to birth control and abortion ran contrary to the interests of the communities she claimed to serve.

Despite posthumously published letters revealing that she suffered crises of faith throughout her life, Teresa has been fast-tracked to canonisation in unusually quick time, underlining her status as a modern-day icon of Catholicism.

Teresa took the first step to sainthood in 2003 when she was beatified by Pope John Paul II following the recognition of a claim she had posthumously inspired the 1998 healing of a critically-ill Bengali tribal woman.

Last year she was credited by Vatican experts with inspiring the 2008 recovery of a Brazilian man suffering from multiple brain tumours, thus meeting the Church's standard requirement for sainthood of having been involved in two certifiable miracles.

Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu to Albanian parents in 1910 in Skopje, now the capital of Macedonia.

She started her life as a nun as a teenager with a missionary order in Ireland and arrived in India in 1929.

After more than two decades of missionary and charity work, she founded her own Missionaries of Charity order in 1950. She was granted Indian citizenship a year later.

The Pope, who regards Teresa as the incarnation of the kind of Church he wants to lead, met the by-then internationally famous nun three years before her death, when he was still a bishop in Argentina.

He later joked that she had seemed so formidable he "would have been scared if she had been my mother superior".

Others were much harsher in their judgment, with the likes of Australian-born feminist writer Germaine Greer and British polemicist Christopher Hitchens accusing her of contributing to the misery of the poor with what they saw as her dogmatic views.

Critics have also called her evangelism overzealous and say her fervent opposition to birth control and abortion belied the health needs of the destitute populations she served.

In her Nobel acceptance speech Teresa described terminations of pregnancies as "direct murder by the mother herself".

Critics also raised questions about the Missionaries of Charity's finances and conditions in the order's hospices.

The late Italian film director and writer Pier Paolo Pasolini was among those who fell under her spell, in his case when he met her during a trip to India in the early 1960s.

"She has an almost virile jaw and a gentle eye that in its gaze 'sees', he wrote, describing Teresa as a combination of "goodness without sentimentality, someone with no expectations who is both calm and calming, powerfully practical."

India granted her a state funeral after her death and her grave in the order's headquarters has since become a pilgrimage site.

ABOUT

Mother Theresa

Born inSkopje in 1910 to Albanian parentsHer real name isAgnes Gonxha BojaxhiuBegan missionary work in1948 with the poor of Kolkata and the teeming eastern metropolis, then known as Calcutta

Who is she?

Mother Teresa was a Nobel peace prize winner and known as the "Angel of Mercy" or the "Saint of the Gutters" for her tireless work in India's Kolkata slums. She was mourned around the world when she died in 1997.

Why is she in the news?

The nun, often pictured smiling while holding a child and dressed in her white and blue habit, is expected to be elevated to sainthood after her second miracle was recognised.

Pope Francis recognised her inexplicable healing of a man suffering from multiple brain tumours on December 18, 2015.

Mother Teresa was not without her critics

Renowned British writer Christopher Hitchens accused her of being a political opportunist who struck up friendships with dictators and corrupt financiers in exchange for donations to her order.

Questions have also been raised over the Missionaries of Charity's finances, as well as conditions in the order's hospices where there has been resistance to introducing modern hygiene methods.


My Brush With A Saint - Mother Theresa

Andy J. Semotiuk , CONTRIBUTOR

I write about global immigration issues and investor immigration.
Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/andyjsemotiuk/2015/12/23/my-brush-with-a-saint-mother-theresa/#42e48b974d87

In the summer of 1976 I attended Habitat: The United Nations Conference on Human Settlements in Vancouver, Canada. While walking with a friend across the campus of the University of British Columbia where the conference was taking place we saw an older woman of diminutive stature with a lined, weathered face in a blue and white nun’s habit. “That’s Mother Theresa,” my friend said. “Who’s Mother Theresa,” I asked. “Why she’s the closest thing to a living saint you will ever meet,” he answered. “A living saint?” I thought. “I’ve never heard of her.” Little did I know then that she would make such a lasting impression on me.

Intrigued, I watched as Mother Theresa made her way towards our forum followed by a small group of people. As a U.N. correspondent stationed in New York I had traveled to Vancouver to write about the growing trend of emigration of political prisoners out of the former Soviet Union and the mistreatment they faced while in that country. Nonetheless, I found myself intently watching Mother Theresa most of that afternoon. I had never seen anyone who was almost a saint before. Apart from the sense of purpose I noted in the way she walked, however, there was nothing special about her that I could see. It was only later that I would realize what tremendous power she possessed.

She once described herself this way: “By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus.” A later Nobel Prize winner for her work with the poor of India, the Nobel Committee summarized her life as follows:

“From 1931 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary’s High School in Calcutta, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls made such a deep impression on her that in 1948 she received permission from her superiors to leave the convent school and devote herself to working among the poorest of the poor in the slums of Calcutta…”

In Vancouver that afternoon we participated in the U.N. forum. Important issues were raised – urbanization, sustainable development, affordable housing, and the fact that millions of people lacked decent housing, food and clean water. There were also the perennial problems that always arose: the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the Cold War between the U.S.S.R. and the United States and the disregard for human rights by various nations – back then Argentina was a growing source of concern. Mother Theresa was allowed to speak several times during the session raising the problems of the poor, the hungry, the naked and the homeless. The moderator of our session exhibited great deference to her, allowing her to speak several times. I have to admit I was a bit miffed that Mother Theresa’s interventions were taking up a lot of the time and thus made it less possible for others to get their problems expressed. As important as she was, I thought that these problems also deserved attention. I was not yet fully aware of her greatness.

In reading about her later in my life I learned that her greatest contribution was to be present with the poor of Calcutta while they lay on their death bed. Many spiritual leaders including, for example, Ram Das, an American who has had to deal with death in the course of his work, have said that the death of a person is a moment of great reverence. Indeed, for me witnessing the titanic struggle between life and death in the final moments of a loved one’s life has been one of the highest honors bestowed on me. This was Mother Theresa’s calling.

As the session drew to a close I watched as she left the building with some people walking back across the mall. Just then I saw a women come up to Mother Theresa with her child. Mother Theresa gently caressed the woman’s face and then picked up the child. In that moment, I finally saw that Mother Theresa’s greatness lay in the tremendous power of her touch. I watched in awe as Mother Theresa cuddled that child as it lay comforted in her heavenly arms. No doubt that same touch, at the bedside of those who were dying, comforted them and helped them transition from this world to the other.

 

教宗正式批准 德雷莎修女9/4封聖

新頭殼newtalk | 林序家 綜合報導

發布 2016.03.15 | 11:24 PM http://newtalk.tw/news/view/2016-03-15/71160

享譽世界的天主教慈善家德雷莎修女,雖已逝世19年,為貧病奉獻一生的大愛仍廣為流傳。教宗方濟各(Pope Francis)15日正式批准德雷莎修女(Mother Teresa)封聖,封聖日訂於9月4日。

在教會的聖年曆中,9月4日已訂為德雷莎紀念日,她的封聖儀式因而特地選在當天舉行。至於封聖典禮地點,梵蒂岡尚未提到,一般預料會在羅馬舉行,感恩典禮稍後將於德雷莎修女安葬的加爾各答舉行。

前教宗若望保祿二世(John Paul II)在2003年為德雷莎修女舉行宣福儀式。宣福需要一次奇蹟,並且是封聖前的最後一步;2015年12月教宗方濟各認證二次醫療奇蹟,當時外界就已預測,德雷莎修女將會封聖。

阿爾巴尼亞裔的德雷莎修女,大半人生奉獻給印度加爾各答的窮人、病人和垂死之人,有「加爾各答的天使」美譽,深受眾多天主教徒尊敬。1979年榮獲諾貝爾和平獎,1997年與世長辭,享年87歲。

 

教宗認可二次神蹟 德雷莎明年將封聖

新頭殼newtalk | 林序家 綜合報導 http://newtalk.tw/news/view/2015-12-18/68151

發布 2015.12.18 | 10:32 PM

享譽世界的天主教慈善家德雷莎修女,雖已逝世18年,為貧病奉獻一生的大愛仍廣為流傳。教廷表示,教宗方濟各已認證二次醫療奇蹟,為德雷莎修女明年封聖鋪路。

據路透社報導,前教宗若望保祿二世(John Paul II)在2003年為德雷莎修女舉行宣福儀式。宣福需要一次奇蹟,並且是封聖前的最後一步。

加爾各答大主教德索薩(Thomas D'Souza)表示,德雷莎修女在2008年治癒罹患腦瘤的巴西男子,已獲教廷認證。他說:「教廷通知我,教宗方濟各已認證德雷莎修女的第2次奇蹟。」

梵蒂岡在聲明中說:「有關歸功真福德雷莎修女代禱的奇蹟,教宗已授權冊封聖人部宣讀教令。」在教會的聖年曆中,9月4日已訂為德雷莎紀念日,專家認為,她的封聖儀式可能會在當天舉行。

綽號「貧民窟聖徒」德雷莎修女(Mother Teresa)是阿爾巴尼亞人,但出生於今馬其頓首都史可比亞(Skopje),一生無私奉獻加爾各答貧民窟的窮人、病人和垂死之人,有「加爾各答的天使」美譽。

德雷莎在1979年贏得諾貝爾和平獎,1997年與世長辭,享年87歲。天主教會將為德雷莎修女封聖,以配合教宗方濟各所宣布的慈悲聖年(Jubilee Year of Mercy)。

 

教宗方濟各確認德蕾莎修女第二項神蹟 明年9月封聖

岳士瑋 2015年12月19日 19:07  http://www.storm.mg/article/76333

梵蒂岡18日表示,教宗方濟各(Pope Francis)已正式授權冊封聖人部(Congregation for the Causes of Saints)宣布,認證已故諾貝爾和平獎得主德蕾莎修女(Mother Teresa)的第二項醫療神蹟。雖然梵蒂岡尚未正式宣佈封聖,但外界預計明年9月將在羅馬封德蕾莎修女為聖人。

德蕾莎修女的兩次神蹟

一位30歲的加爾各答婦女曾表示,在祈禱詞中以德蕾莎修女之名代禱使她腹部的腫瘤治癒,在經過梵蒂岡的確認後成為第一項神蹟。根據義大利天主教教宗組織的官方報紙《前途報》(Avvenire)表示,第二項神蹟發生在2008年,一位巴西男子在他的神父及親屬於祈禱詞中,也以德蕾莎修女之名禱告,腦瘤隨後得到痊癒。

在第二項神蹟獲得認證後,由德蕾莎修女所成立的仁愛傳教會(Missionaries of Charity)的發言人庫瑪爾(Sunita Kumar)表示,他們為此感到興奮,也認為德蕾莎修女的一生本就是一個神蹟,因為她將其一生奉獻給貧民,並且以服務人群為一生的目標,而封聖是對她善行的認證。

什麼是封聖?

在天主教的傳統裡,宣福禮(又稱宣福、列福、列福式)是天主教會追封已過世但出現過一次神蹟的信徒的儀式。經過宣福禮的人以「真福者」的稱號存在,位階僅次於聖人,而且天主教徒相信以真福者的名號代禱會有更好的成效。在2003年,德蕾莎修女1997年去世的6年後即由已故教宗若望保祿二世(Pope John Paul II)為其舉行宣福禮。

封聖(又稱列聖、宣聖)則宣福禮之後的進階儀式。經過宣福禮的「真福者」,在出現過兩次神蹟並且經過教會確認資格後,就可以舉行封聖儀式,宣佈其成為聖人。聖人可以受到一般信徒敬拜,並且聖堂中也可以出現其名字祝聖。

雖然部分人士認為,德蕾莎修女的行徑是為了使她所幫助的那些赤貧的人改信天主教,但是同是由德蕾莎修女所創立的加爾各答垂死之家表示,有許多在此服務及接受照顧的人都不是教徒。即使有些人因此改信天主教,也非德蕾莎修女原本的用意,而是長期下來個人的改變。

加爾各答的天使

德蕾莎修女是阿爾巴尼亞人,1910年出生在鄂圖曼帝國科索沃省的史高比耶(前南斯拉夫馬其頓共和國的首都),18歲才正式成為修女。於1940年代到印度加爾各答(Kolkata)看到無數貧民及痲瘋患者,決心奉獻其一生。

德蕾莎修女在1950年時創立了仁愛傳教會,全心為窮人服務。1952年,更創立了加爾各答垂死之家,收留並照料瀕臨死亡的窮人,讓 他們在生命的最後階段有尊嚴地死去。一生都為窮人奉獻的德蕾莎修女在1979年獲得諾貝爾和平獎的殊榮。雖然有部分人士對他的行徑有不滿之處,但是他曾獲諾貝爾和平獎及他無私的作為使他受到大部分人的敬重及推崇。如今將獲得封聖的資格,對德蕾莎修女更是一大肯定。

 

德蕾莎修女第2項神蹟獲確認 明年可望封聖

法新社 http://www.appledaily.com.tw/realtimenews/article/new/20151219/756466/

2015年12月19日04:50

梵蒂岡周五(18日)表示,教宗方濟各(Pope Francis)已簽署法令,確認已故諾貝爾和平獎得主、德蕾莎修女(Mother Teresa)的第2項醫療神蹟。雖然梵蒂岡未宣布會於何時為她進行封聖,但義大利媒體估計,儀式會於明年9月4日進行。

梵蒂岡一個負責冊封聖人的部門,3天前召開會議,確認「一名患有多重腦瘤的巴西男子,向德蘭修女祈福後,2008年腫瘤奇蹟般消失」,教廷認定此事為神蹟。

依教廷傳統,需要至少施行2項神蹟才能獲得封聖,德蕾莎修女的第1項神蹟已於2003年10月19日,獲已故教宗若望保祿二世(John Paul II)認證,指她於逝世後的1998年,在1名罹患腹部腫瘤的女子貝絲拉身上展現神蹟,使其不藥而癒。當時的認證讓德蕾莎修女得以接受宣福禮,取得「真福」品位,向封聖邁進一步。

德蕾莎修女出生於鄂圖曼土耳其帝國的史高比耶(Skopje,現為馬其頓首都),成為修女後移居印度,在加爾各答(Calcutta)照顧貧苦眾生長達半世紀,善行獲全球讚揚,而有「貧民聖人」之稱。她於1979年獲頒諾貝爾和平獎,1997年逝世,享壽87歲。(國際中心/綜合外電報導)

 

神迹治腦癌漢 教廷或追封德雷莎修女為聖徒

11月19日(四) 21:20 http://tw.on.cc/int/bkn/cnt/news/20151119/bknint-20151119212017285-1119_17011_001.html

【on.cc東網專訊】 有「白衣天使」美譽的已故諾貝爾和平獎得主德雷莎修女,早於03年獲宣福。義大利傳媒報道,巴西聖保羅一名腦癌病人近日稱,向德雷莎修女祈福後,腫瘤兩日內即神奇消失。若驗證神迹屬實,德雷莎修女將於明年忌日前夕的9月4日,獲教廷封聖。

報道指,巴西一間教堂今年較早前滙報,一名病重信徒的妻子向德雷莎修女祈禱,兩日後丈夫的腫瘤竟不藥而愈,可步出深切治療病房,連醫生也大吃一驚,不能以科學方法解釋。梵蒂岡早前派員往當地調查,若神迹獲肯定,德雷莎修女將獲教宗方濟各追封為聖人。但梵蒂岡周三澄清,神迹暫未經確認,未有確定封聖日期。

致力為印度加爾各答貧民服務的德雷莎修女,於1997年與世長辭,加爾各答其後成立一個委員會,為她申請封聖。她於2003年因第一個治病神迹,獲已故教宗若望保祿二世列入真福名單。

 

教宗認可德雷莎修女二次奇蹟 封聖近了

時間:2015-12-18 17:57 http://news.rti.org.tw/news/detail/?recordId=241132

梵蒂岡今天(18日)宣布聲明,天主教教宗方濟各(Pope Francis)已經認可一項可歸於德雷莎修女(Mother Teresa)的奇蹟,並且是教廷第二次認可透過德雷莎修女代禱所顯現的奇蹟。這項認可同時也顯示,教廷明年將為德雷莎修女封聖。

梵蒂岡在聲明中表示:「教宗已經授權冊封聖人部(Congregation for the Causes of Saints),宣讀有關可歸於真福德雷莎修女代禱的奇蹟。」

加爾各答的德雷莎修女,曾榮獲諾貝爾和平獎,奉獻一生救濟窮苦眾生,她於1997年逝世,享壽87歲,在前教宗若望保祿二世(Pope Saint John Paul II)在位時,德雷莎修女獲得宣福(Beatification),宣福需要一次奇蹟,並且是封聖前的階段。

德雷莎修女的第一次死後奇蹟,發生在1998年9月,仁愛傳教修女會2名修女為印度貧民貝絲拉治療陳年胃部惡性腫瘤,當時正值德蕾莎修女去世1週年,2位修女持1個鑲有德蕾莎照片的橢圓形飾牌貼在貝絲拉的胃部,並為她祈禱,接著她便陷入沈睡,醒後發現腫瘤「不見了」,因而被歌頌為神蹟,貝絲拉也因而成為天主教信徒。

另外,天主教「未來報」(Avvenire)今天引述教廷專家法拉斯卡(Stefania Falasca)的話報導,教廷明年9月4日將於羅馬正式將德雷莎修女列入聖品,以配合教宗方濟各所宣布的慈悲聖年(Jubilee Year of Mercy)。

未來報報導,巴西1名腦瘤患者宣稱向德雷莎修女祈福後,腫瘤隨即神奇消失、不藥而癒後,教廷冊封聖人部3天前召集專家,驗證神跡屬實,天主教會於是決定追封德雷莎修女為聖徒。

 

教宗認可二次神跡 德雷莎明年將封聖

http://www.msn.com/zh-hk/news/world/教宗認可二次神跡-德雷莎明年將封聖/ar-BBnHEM3

(法新社梵蒂岡18日電) 教廷說,教宗方濟各已認證歸於德雷莎修女的二次醫療奇蹟,為德雷莎修女明年封聖鋪路。

德雷莎修女(Mother Teresa)奉獻一生,救濟印度加爾各答窮苦眾生,天主教會將為德雷莎修女封聖,以配合教宗方濟各所宣布的慈悲聖年(Jubilee Year ofMercy)。

梵蒂岡在聲明中說:「有關歸功真福德雷莎修女代禱的奇蹟,教宗已授權冊封聖人部宣讀教令。」

專家說,在教會的聖年曆中,9月4日已訂為德雷莎紀念日,而她的封聖儀式可能會在當天舉行。

加爾各答大主教德索薩(Thomas D'Souza)說,教廷已認證德雷莎修女顯神跡,在2008年治癒罹患腦瘤的巴西男子。

德索薩向記者透露:「教廷通知我,教宗方濟各已認證德雷莎修女的第2次奇蹟。」

德雷莎是阿爾巴尼亞人,但出生於今馬其頓首都史可比亞(Skopje),一生都在幫助無家可歸的窮人,成為享譽世界的天主教慈善工作家。德雷莎1997年與世長辭,享年87歲。

綽號「貧民窟聖徒」的德雷莎一生無私奉獻加爾各答貧民窟的窮人、病人和垂死之人,她在1979年贏得諾貝爾和平獎。

據路透社報導,前教宗若望保祿二世(John Paul II)在2003年為德雷莎修女舉行宣福儀式。宣福需要一次奇蹟,並且是封聖前的最後一步。

德雷莎修女將封聖 西孟加拉歡欣

2015-12-18 22:12 中央社 新德里18日專電  http://udn.com/news/story/5/1387237-德雷莎修女將封聖-西孟加拉歡欣

梵諦岡今天宣布,天主教會將為德雷莎修女封聖,讓西孟加拉省教徒非常高興。

西孟加拉(West Bengal)省省長班納吉(Mamata Banerjee)在推特上說,剛剛聽到德雷莎修女將被封聖,趁此歡樂時機向德雷莎修女創辦的仁愛傳教修女會(Missionaries of Charity)獻上所有最好的祝願。

華爾街日報印度網報導,加爾各答大主教迪蘇沙(Thomas D'Souza)表示,「對我們來說,德雷莎修女早在獲得冊封前,就已經是聖徒了。我們非常、非常地開心,這就像是給我們的聖誕節禮物一樣。」

大主教說,德雷莎修女將是加爾各答的首位受封聖徒,這是印度第3位女性被封聖。

據外電報導,梵諦岡18日表示,德雷莎修女的聖蹟已經被確認,可望封為聖徒,但沒有提供進一步細節。但消息說,梵諦岡將在德雷莎修女逝世紀念日的前一天,也就是明年9月4日冊封她為聖徒。

來自馬其頓的德雷莎修女,長期在印度東部城市幫助貧民窟的窮人,後來成為印度公民,並創辦仁愛傳教修女會,她也是諾貝爾和平獎得主,逝世於1997年9月5日。

仁愛傳教修女會目前在超過130個國家行善,關懷窮人與罹患愛滋病、痲瘋病等的病患,向窮人施粥,設立愛滋病收容所、痲瘋病中心和婦女與孤兒收容所。

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